When writing the plain English summary consider including the following information where appropriate:

Aim(s) of the research

  • What are you aiming to find out?
  • How will patients / carers / members of the public and services benefit from your research – either directly or in the longer term?

 Background to the research

  • Why does this research need to be done now?
  • What is the scale of the issue? For example:

– How many patients / members of the public are affected

– What are the costs to services?

 Design and methods used

  • What design and methods have you chosen and why?
  • Who are your participants? (if appropriate)

 Patient and public involvement

  • How have patients / the public been involved in developing this research to date?
  • How will patients / the public be involved in the conduct / management of the research?


  • Who will the findings be communicated to and how?

 Find out more:

email: makeitclear@invo.org.uk